Neoconcretism (1959-61), a distinctly Brazilian vanguard movement, evolved from Rio de Janeiro's freer brand of concrete art. Neoconcretists rejected serial form, optical effects, and the influence of science and technology. Retaining their foundation in geometric abstraction, they nonetheless favored the sensual over the intellectual. Those associated with this movement eventually made works that required the viewer's physical intervention. Lygia Clark, Hélio Oiticica, and Lygia Pape were among the neoconcretists.